Essential Wood furniture-making tools are a rewarding craft that has been around for centuries. However, it requires skills, patience, and the right tools in your workshop. Having the appropriate tools as a furniture craft hobbyist or professional carpenter is essential in creating beautiful and durable items. This article examines the vital wood furniture-making tools every woodworker must have to complete their project successfully.
Table of Contents
- Build or Purchase a Solid Wooden Workbench
- Folding Rule/ Tape Measure
- Marking Knife
- Dividers (Compass)
- Chisel set
- Woodwork Planes
- Wooden Mallet
- Combination Square
- Sliding Bevel Square
- Woodworking Clamps
- Sharpening Supplies and Tools
Build or Purchase a Solid Wooden Workbench
You can construct a tailored workbench if you want to customize it to your specifications. Alternatively, a pre-made wooden workstation may be suitable if you have limited time. When purchasing a workbench, consider a heavy and stable one with a solid top and strong supportive legs.
Folding Rule/ Tape Measure
It uses for measuring and marking cuts and layout work on wood. A folding rule can be folded into a compact size, making it easy to carry around. They come in various lengths, but most professions recommend a 24-inch ruler. In contrast, a tape measure is a long, flat tape with markings that you can pull out to measure larger lengths. Since a folding ruler cannot measure big lengths, while a tape measure might not be portable, it’s recommendable to have both.
A marking knife is a precision tool used to mark accurate and precise lines and marks on pieces of wood. Woodworkers use it with a square, a ruler, or a straightedge to draw joinery cut lines. There are various marking knives, including single-bevel and double-bevel knives, for different markings, such as fine or rough marking.
Dividers or compasses are flexible precision tools for transferring measurements, marking arcs, and cutting dovetails. A pair of dividers is also helpful when marking shapes for decorative work or measuring radii for rounding over edges. Additionally, many woodworkers with visibility difficulties find dividers easier to use since they can take measurements by feeling alone.
Of all wood furniture-making tools, saws are some of the most basic requirements for any woodworker. They cut and shape pieces of wood to the required sizes and shapes. Frequently used woodworking saws come in various types, each with a specific application and purpose.
Panel saws feature a long, thin blade with a comfortable handle for cutting rough dimensioning lumber. They are ideal for large wood sheets such as plywood and MDF boards. There are two types of panel saws that any woodworker must have:
- A rip saw for cutting along the grain of the wood: These saws have several teeth per inch, making them ideal for cutting with wood grain. Generally, rip saws are suitable for cutting lumber and framing.
- A cross-cut saw for cutting across the grain: Such saws have few teeth with a shallower angle than the rip saw, suitable for cutting against the grain. Cross-cut saws are ideal for plywood and paneling.
Back saws make precise, accurate cuts in wood. They feature a stiffened spine running along the top of the blade for enhanced stability and support when in action. Back saws come in various styles for specific purposes and teeth configurations, such as dovetail, tenon, and sash saws.
A coping saw is fine-teethed for cutting intricate shapes and curves in wood. It features a thin blade in a U-shaped frame ideal for cutting tight radii and small, detailed cuts. Its ability to turn at a tight angle without breaking makes it suitable for cutting decorative designs and patterns. It may also help cut irregular shapes or remove waste from curves or irregularly cut joints.
A miter saw or back saw miter box makes precise angled cuts in wood. It features a backsaw with a miter box, making it ideal for cutting frames and other pieces requiring angled cuts. The saw consists of a stiffened spine and a miter box for guiding to make accurate angled cuts.
A chisel is helpful when cutting, shaping, or removing waste in cut joints. These tools come in various sizes and shapes to fit specific functions. These include paring, mortise, firmer, and bevel-edge chisels. While bevel-edge is a beginner-friendly all-purpose chisel, most professionals recommend a set of about five chisels for effective work.
Woodworking hand planes are other important wood furniture-making tools for shaping and smoothing surfaces to a desired finish. They make precise cuts, scrap fiber, and remove other waste to create a smooth surface. Planes come in different types with varied functions:
Using Jack plane
Jack Hand Plane
It is the fundamental general-purpose plane used for material removal and contouring. The jack plane has a longer body than other hand planes, making it ideal for smoothing rough edges and uneven surfaces.
A block plane is a compact, multipurpose tool for delicate and intricate work. It is lightweight and portable and may be employed for woodworking tasks like trimming end grain and putting chamfers.
This small plane is suitable for trimming joints’ shoulders and making precise cuts to enhance joinery quality. It comes with a narrower blade, ideal for smoothening cut shoulders for joints like the tenons, rabbets, and grooves.
These versatile tools scrape a surface before applying a finish, shape wood, and create curves. They are ideal for smoothing or leveling brittle, hard, or uneven surfaces, such as end grain and old finishes. Its edge is usually very sharp for removing small amounts of wood fibers without tearing or leaving a rough surface.
A wooden mallet drives chisels into the wood when removing materials to make a joint. It is an excellent addition to any woodworking toolbox because it’s useful in assembling furniture, shaping, and smoothing wood. Professionals prefer a wooden mallet to a hammer when striking the chisel because it’s less likely to cause damage. You may buy a ready-made mallet or make one from hardwood, such as oak or hickory. When making or buying, ensure the tool handle is comfortable to hold and provides a secure grip. Additionally, ensure the mallet head is heavy enough to use with a chisel.
A combination square is a useful tool for layout lines, verifying straightness, and measuring and marking angles. It includes a square head with a ruler and can be locked in place at various angles. The square head can rotate to different angles, enabling accurate measurements of angles and checking for squareness. The ruler helps measure and draw straight lines and distances and find centers. The tool usually includes a spirit level to check if a surface is a level. Avoid purchasing old combination squares since they may have precision flaws that could lead to joinery problems.
Sliding Bevel Square
Also known as an angle square, this tool measures and transfers angles in irregularly shaped objects or angled cuts. The blade is adjustable to the object’s angle and then locked in place, allowing for angle transfer. It’s also useful for checking structure corners and can be used to check the squareness of the saw blade angle. Consider a square with a safe blade locking mechanism to guarantee that the angle remains in place while in operation.
Woodworking involves joinery, which requires glue to hold the piece together. Before this glue dries, you need a clamp to keep the wood pieces together. Clamps are also useful for holding working parts together while cutting or drilling. Although one bar clamp may be enough for your joinery requirements, you may consider several other types. These include C-clamp, F-clamp, corner clamp, pipe, and spring clamps. When buying clamps, consider the size of your wood piece and the type of joints you intend to make.
Clamps at work
Sharpening Supplies and Tools
Some wood furniture-making tools may get blunt before you complete your project, requiring sharpening to maintain edges. Additionally, tools such as saws, chisels, and hand plane blades need regular sharpening for optimal operation. There are many types of sharpening tools, but sharpening stones are the most basic. These come in various grits, from coarse to fine suitable for refining and sharpening different cutting tools. Examples of common sharpening stones in your workshop include oil, water, and diamond.
Having the appropriate and essential wood furniture-making tools ensures you can do any woodworking project. When buying these tools, consider their quality, durability, and suitability for your project. Additionally, ensure appropriate and recommended maintenance practices to keep your tools optimal and functional.