Are you planning on doing some woodworking? Whether you are a DIY enthusiast or a professional, it’s imperative to choose the project’s right drill bits. You can pick between various types and materials, but it’s also vital to consider the specifics of the drilled application. In this article, we are focusing on how to choose wood drill bits. Our experts prepared a comprehensive guide and covered every detail. Here is what every woodworker should know to pick the right bit for the upcoming drilling project!
1. Major Types of Wood Drill Bits
You’ll find many wood drill bits types available in the market. While some categories overlap, we covered the main classes of these tools below. So, check out our selection and find your favorite.
1.1 Twist Bits (HSS)
Caption: A twist drill bit on a drilling tool
Many would call these the standard drill bits for woodworking, but also other projects. It’s versatile and suitable for various applications, including plastic, wood, and even light metal.
However, actual durability and performance will depend on the material selected. So, the experts suggest going with HSS twist bits made of high-speed steel. While drilling wood, make sure to clean the bit regularly because the flutes might capture the residue.
1.2 Brad Point Bits
Caption: Brad-point wood drill bit
Do you need to maximize accuracy when boring wooden applications? If the answer is yes, you’ll find brad-point units are the best drill bits for wood.
These feature a sharp point on top to position everything correctly. Therefore, It ensures clean entrance and exit points. The extra-wide flutes make sure to direct the material away from the bit.
1.3 Spade Bits
Caption: Spade drill bits closeup
You’ll notice the spade shape, which is how the bit got its name. It’s easy to position and steady the bit while drilling the hole. If you need the hole to be wider, this tool is the right choice. However, you won’t find any flutes on spade bits. So, the chip removal is mostly the operator’s task.
1.4 Hole Saw
Caption: A hole saw close up
You can use a hole saw for wire-passing channels or setting up door and window hardware. The tool has a large diameter, and it makes it convenient for wider gaps than usual. Thanks to the pilot feature, it shouldn’t be challenging to position the tool properly. On top of that, it’s easy to remove any residue with the saw cylinder. It’s also possible to use a bi-metal hole saw for cutting through masonry and other rough materials.
1.5 Auger and Ship Auger Bits
Caption: An auger bit drilling wood
You could say the auger bit’s tip has a screw-like shape. Once you initiate the hole, the form pulls the tool into the application. Thanks to that, the bit is capable of creating an accurate and mess-free hole. Additionally, this unit is an excellent choice for removing wood chips efficiently.
Ship auger bits are a subcategory of these tools. They are suitable for unusually thick wooden applications, but also plastic and vinyl. Additionally, you can use them to cut through the nails without damaging the tool.
1.6 Pilot Drilling Countersink Bit
Caption: A countersink drill bit drilling a hole
We could divide this bit’s performance into two categories. First, it drills a pilot hole. Next, it countersinks or counterbores them. Therefore, the fastener head goes under the application’s surface. The pilot drilling countersink bit does all these at a single pass, which makes it convenient to use.
2. What Are the Materials for Making the Woodworking Drill Bits?
Caption: High-speed drill bits on a white background
It’s vital to consider both materials and coatings of preferred wood drill bits. However, we’ll first discuss the materials.
You have two options available, so choose carefully:
- Carbon – steel with high and low carbon content can be suitable for drill bits. If you use a low-carbon drill, stick only to softwood. It would be best if you also sharpened them frequently, but their price is extremely affordable. On the other hand, high-carbon drills don’t require frequent sharpening, and they can be suitable for hardwood. Therefore, they are a better choice for demanding tasks.
- HSS – it’s an abbreviation for high-speed steel. It is the highest quality material for drill bits because it can handle high heat while maintaining hardness and structure.
As for the coatings, these are the available ones:
- Titanium – It’s the most common coating option. It is resistant to corrosion and reasonably lightweight. On top of that, it’s relatively durable and can withstand high temps.
- Cobalt – professionals use these coatings primarily for metal. Therefore, it might not be necessary to invest in it if you plan only woodworking projects.
- Zirconium – It features a mixture of zirconium nitride for additional durability. Additionally, it promotes accuracy because it reduces friction.
3. How to Choose the Right Drill Bits for Woodworking
Caption: A closeup of the woodworking drill bit
It’s always better to go with high-quality drill bits for wood. However, it’s all about finding the best balance between price and quality. Your crucial task is to find a bit suitable for your application. So, here are the primary factors to consider during the selection process!
Know the General Wood Type
The first thing to clarify is the material type. Therefore, you should be familiar with significant classes, which include hardwood and softwood. Now, these are the two main types, but there are many subcategories.
For example, hickory is much tougher than pine. The experts advise you should go with wood boring drill bits that are tough. So, choose black oxide or titanium coating for additional strength. If you are only drilling soft materials, a simple steel bit should do the job. Despite that, it’s always smart to invest in a durable and long-lasting bit.
Assess the Type of Hole Needed
Another thing that could affect your selection is the hole type. Therefore, consider your plans. Would you like to install an anchor so that you can hang a picture in that hole? It will require picking the right bit size for the desired hole. On the other hand, a hole to pass a wire through might not need to be that accurate.
4. How to Get a Wood Drill Bit Sharp Again
Caption: Sharpening a wood drill bit
The primary tool to have for the sharpening process is a bench grinder. Before you start, make sure to put on safety goggles and other protective equipment.
Here are the steps for sharpening your wood drill bit.
- Analyze the bit to see which parts need sharpening and how much metal to remove. The idea is to keep as much of the bit material as possible.
- Activate the bench grinder and hold the bit firmly. Keep the bit straight as it contacts the wheel and starts the sharpening process.
- Avoid holding the bit against the grinder for over several seconds. Check the results and see if you need to continue sharpening. However, make sure to let the bit cool down – use water if necessary.
- Repeat the steps above with all sections of the bit that need sharpening.
You can also check out this video for an easy way to sharpen wood drill bits.
5. What Is the Right Speed to Drill Wood?
The suitable speed will depend on three factors – drill diameter, size, and the material you are drilling.
Here is a quick overview of suitable speeds for different woodworking drill bits:
- Twist bits – the smallest drill bits from 3/16 to 3/8 inches can operate up to 3,000RPMs on softwood or 1,500RPMs on the hardwood. If you are using 1 1/16 – 1-inch diameters, limit the speed to 500RPMs for hard maple and similar materials and increase 750RPMs for softwood.
- Brad-point – these can go up to 1,800RPMs for pine and other softwood materials. However, if you use ¾ or a larger drill diameter, consider reducing the speed to 1,000-1,200RPMs. If you are drilling hardwood, decrease the rate to 250RPMs for 1-inch diameter bits, and don’t go over 1,200RPMs for the smallest bits.
- Spade – the speed can vary from 1,200 to RPMs for softwood and 700 to 1,500RPMs. The harder the material and the larger the bit, the slower the speed should be.
Ultimately, it will be a guessing game, but we provided some starting values in the list above. So, our recommendation is to start slow until you find a suitable speed for your material.
6. Tips for Maintaining Wood Bits
It doesn’t matter if you have short or long drill bits for wood. The maintenance tips remain the same. So, make sure to check them out below:
- Use them with caution – the maintenance starts with using them properly. That means only using suitable speeds and good drill bits for that particular material. It minimizes the risk of damaging the tool.
- Clean them regularly – it’s vital to clean the bit right after you finish an operation. That will ensure the tool remains clean for the upcoming tasks.
- Store them away correctly – you should have a box for keeping the drill bits. Once you finish using them, please place them in that box to avoid potential damage.
- Keep them free from moisture – you don’t want the bits to rust, which is why you should avoid water.
Our article covered all the major points related to wood drill bits. We discussed the main types and materials and factors to consider when selecting your project’s right bit.
If you need additional tools in your collection, don’t hesitate to contact NCCuttingtools today. The company provides a vast selection of tools and accessories and is ready to meet customized order requirements. If you have any questions or items required for your next project, don’t hesitate to contact us.